PSF stands for Posterior Spinal Fusion. The PSF technique, often utilized for the thoracic or lumbar spine, can be performed through an open incision or a minimally invasive surgery (MIS) incision. An open incision is a midline incision that is typically larger in size. An MIS incision is a smaller incision where the surgeon uses specialized instrumentation to perform the procedure. Regardless of the incision, the surgeon’s goal is to access the spine from the posterior aspect of the spine and insert spinal hardware (srews, rods, and locking caps) through the pedicles and into the vertebral body to provide stability to the spine, restore proper posture or lordosis, and facilitate fusion.